Une-drone noma uhlela ukuyithenga futhi ungathanda ukufunda ngemithetho yamanje yama-drones ePoland. Le ndatshana ingeyakho.

KUBALULEKILE!

Isihloko esilandelayo sixoxa ngemithetho kazwelonke yama-drones ngokuya ngokuzivocavoca izindiza zokuzijabulisa (Amateur). Imithetho kazwelonke echazwe ngezansi njengoba kumenyeziwe uzoyeka ukufaka isicelo ngoDisemba 31.12.2020, XNUMX. Imigomo ephathelene nokubhalisa, izimvume nemithetho yokuhambisa i-drone izoshintsha.

Inani elikhulayo lama-drones lasho ukuthi iKhomishini yaseYurophu yaqala umsebenzi ukuvumelanisa izimiso kuwo wonke amaZwe angamaLungu e-European Union. Imithetho kumele iqale ukusebenza ngomhla ka-01.07.2020/19/01.01.2021, kepha ngenxa yesibhicongo i-COVID-XNUMX, usuku lwahlehliselwa umhlaka-XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX.

Izincazelo eziyisisekelo

Lapho ufunda imiyalo ye-drone, uvame ukuthola izifinyezo ze-BSP, VLOS, UAVO, opharetha noma umgadi we-drone. Ungaqiniseki ukuthi zisho ukuthini, zihluka kanjani? Zizwe ukhululekile ukufunda izincazelo eziyisisekelo okudingeka uzazi.

Imoto yendiza engahleliwe (BSP) - i-colloquely drone - indiza engadingi isikebhe sendiza futhi ayikwazi ukuthatha abagibeli. Indiza ekude noma eyizimele. I-UAV yesiNgisi (imoto engahlelwanga endizeni) noma iNingizimu Afrika (indiza eyakhiwe ngokude);

I-Operator - Umuntu wokudeja umshayeli we-UAV;

Umqapheli - Umuntu okhethwe opharetha, ngokubona okubonakalayo kwe-UAV ngamehlo angabonakali, isiza opharetha ekunqumeni isikhundla endaweni yomoya esisezingeni lemodeli ezindizayo nokugcina ibanga eliphephile;

I-UAVO (Umsebenzi Wokuhamba Ngezimoto Ongahlelwanga) - isitifiketi sokuqinisekiswa kwabaqhubi be-drone abagunyaza ukusetshenziswa kwabo ngezinjongo zokuhweba;

I-VLOS - Ukusebenza ngaphakathi kwensimu ebonakalayo (I-Visual Line of Sight Operation) - imisebenzi lapho opharetha noma okungenani isibukeli esisodwa sigcina ukuxhumana okubonakalayo ne-UAV;

I-FPV - Ukusebenza ngokubuka komuntu wokuqala (Ukubuka Komuntu Wokuqala) - imisebenzi lapho opharetha elawula i-UAV ngaphandle kokugcina iso libonana nayo. Inquma indawo yayo ngomfanekiso odluliselwa ngesikhathi sangempela ngamadivayisi afakwe ebhodini;

BVLOS - Ukusebenza ngaphandle kobubanzi bokubonakalayo (Beyond Visual Line of Sight Operation) - imisebenzi lapho opharetha angagcini ukuxhumana okubonakalayo okuqondile ne-UAV. Lolu hlobo lokundiza lungenziwa kuphela ngabantu ababambe isitifiketi semvume;

Indiza ezenzakalelayo (ezimweni ze-BVLOS) - imisebenzi lapho i-UAV yenza ngokuzenzakalelayo ukuthatha uhambo, ukufika nokundiza ngomzila ohleliwe. U-opharetha unokuqashwa okukude okugcwele ekusebenzeni. Lolu hlobo lokundiza lungenziwa kuphela ngabantu ababambe isitifiketi semvume;

Imodeli yokundiza - I-colloquically drone esetshenziselwa izinjongo zokuzithokozisa - igama elisetshenziswe emithethweni yasePoland yama-UAV anesisindo sokukhipha esingaphezu kwama-150 kg, asetshenziswa emisebenzini yeVLOS, kanye nama-UAV anesisindo esikususa kufika ku-2 kg, asetshenziswa kwimisebenzi ye-FPV, esetshenziselwa izinjongo zokuzijabulisa noma zemidlalo;

Imithetho ye-Drone - imithetho ejwayelekile yezindiza zokuzijabulisa

Uma unentshisekelo kokuqukethwe okuningiliziwe kwemithetho, uzothola izixhumanisi zazo ekugcineni kwendatshana.

Ama-Drones aya ngokuya ethandwa. Noma kunjalo, khumbula ukuthi lezi akuzona amathoyizi nokuthi ukundiza kuhambisana nomsebenzi omningi. Isisebenzisi ngasinye sinesibopho esingokomthetho sokwazi imithethonqubo efanelekile ye-drones futhi siyisebenzise lapho isebenza. Uyazi ukuthi i-drone iphathwa njengemoto yasezindiza engashintshiwe (i-UAV) ngokuya ngomthetho wasePoland? Ngenkathi ushayela i-drone, ungomunye wabasebenzisi be-airpace. Indiza ngayinye kufanele yenziwe ngokuya ngezinhlinzeko zomthetho wokundiza. Lapho indiza ngokungemthetho, sigijimisa ubungozi bokuhlawuliswa noma ngisho nokuboshwa iminyaka emi-5. Umqhubi we-drone ubuye abhekele noma yimuphi umonakalo odalwe ngenxa yendiza engakhathali.

Uma undiza i-drone ngezinjongo zokuzijabulisa. ungandiza:

  • ngaphandle kweziqu futhi ngaphandle kwezivivinyo zodokotela,
  • ngaphandle komshuwalense wemfanelo yomphakathi (yize sincoma ukuyithenga),
  • Kubonwa i-VLOS,
  • ku-FPV uma i-drone ingeqi i-2 kg.

Uma undiza ngokubuka kwekhamera (i-FPV), kufanele uhlangabezane nezidingo ezengeziwe. Awukwazi ukundiza:

  • ingaphezulu kwamamitha ayi-50 ngaphezu kwenhlabathi,
  • ebangeni elivundlile elingaphezu kwamamitha ayi-200 ukusuka komunye nomunye,
  • ngaphansi kwamamitha ayi-100 ukusuka ezakhiweni noma emibuthanweni engaphandle.

Lapho undiza, unesibopho sokunakekela ngokukhethekile intshisakalo yezokuphepha kwezimoto nokugcina ukuthula komphakathi nokuhleleka. Ama-Drones kufanele anikeze indlela indiza enomoya. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngaphambi kokukhumula ngakunye, kufanele uqiniseke ukuthi i-drone izwakala kahle kwezobuchwepheshe.

Esikhathini esibizwa nge- "Anti-Crisis Shield 2.0" kunesidingo esingeziwe sabasebenza ngama-drone. Kwethulwa i-Article 15zzzl, ephoqa ukubikwa kwendiza ye-UAV ePoland Air Navigation Services Agency. Lokhu kusho ukuthi indiza ngayinye ye-Drone kufanele yandulelwe ukungena ekungeniseni uhlelo lokusebenza lwe-DroneRadar.

Imithetho yendiza ngokuya ngesisindo se-drone

Uma isisindo se-drone ayidluli ku-600 g, kufanele ugcine ibanga elivikelekile kusuka ezakhiweni, emadolobheni, ezigodini zezindlu noma emibuthanweni yabantu emoyeni ovulekile kanye nabantu, izimoto, izakhiwo (leli banga alichaziwe ngemininingwane).

Uma isisindo se-Drone yakho ngaphezu kwe-600 g, kumele:

  • gcina ibanga eliqondile elingaphansi kwamamitha ayi-100 ukusuka ezakhiweni zamadolobhana, zokuhlala noma emihlanganweni yabantu evulekile,
  • gcina ibanga eliqondile elingaphansi kwamamitha ayi-30 ukusuka kubantu, izimoto noma izakhiwo (akufanele indize ngqo phezu kwabantu).

Imithetho ye-Drone - izindawo lapho ungavunyelwe khona ukundiza

Ngaphandle kokuhlinzekwa okungenhla, kunezindawo ku-airpace yasePoland lapho, ngenxa yezizathu zokuphepha, ungakwazi ukundiza, noma lapho kudingeka khona imvume ekhethekile. Uma ufuna ukubheka kalula ukuthi ungandizela kuphi futhi lapho kungenjalo, ungasebenzisa uhlelo lokusebenza lweDroneRadar. Ngemuva kokufaka isisindo se-drone kanye nokuphakama kwendiza, ungathola imininingwane yokuthi indiza endaweni ethile ivunyelwe yini.

Awukwazi ukundiza ama-drones:

  • kwizikhumulo zezindiza,
  • izitimela zamasosha kanye nezinkundla zokuqeqesha,
  • izindawo ezivalekile (izindawo ezigcinelwe izinhloso zokuvikela umbuso nokuphepha, kubandakanya nezindawo zesitimela),
  • abantu nemibuthano yabantu emoyeni ovulekile.

Awukwazi ukundiza i-drones ngaphandle kokuthola imvume kubaphathi, kumasevisi akhethekile noma ngemuva kokuhlangabezana nezidingo ezingeziwe:

  • eduze kwezikhumulo zezindiza, endaweni okuthiwa Izindawo zokulawula zesikhumulo sezindiza i-CTR kanye ne-traffic ATR,
  • amapaki kazwelonke,
  • eceleni komngcele osempumalanga wasePoland endaweni yomngcele.

Kufanele undize ngokuhlonipha ubumfihlo babanye. Fly phezu kwabanye abantu, imigwaqo, amapayipi, izintambo zikagesi namanye amadivayisi, ukubhujiswa noma ukulimala okungadala usongo kubantu, ezempilo noma imvelo, kufanele kuncishiswe futhi kwenziwe ngokunakekelwa okukhethekile.

summation

Ukundiza ngokusemthethweni i-drone kufanele:

  1. Bika indiza - yenza ihlaya ku-DroneRadar application (Kusukela ngo-Ephreli 18 kuze kube yilapho umthetho uchithwa ngenxa yokusakazwa kwegciwane le-SARS-CoV-2).
  2. Gcina ibanga elivikelekile nokuphakama kwendiza, kuya endaweni okuyo nesisindo semodeli yakho ye-drone.
  3. Musa ukundiza ezindaweni ezinqatshelwe (hlola ku-DroneRadar application).
  4. Nakekela ngokufanele.

Imithetho kazwelonke yamanje yama-drones

Izimo ezinemininingwane nezidingo zokusebenzisa ama-drones ngezinjongo zokuzijabulisa noma zezemidlalo zichazwe ku:

  1. Isithasiselo 6 Ukumenyezelwa kukaNgqongqoshe Wezingqalasizinda zangomhlaka 3 kuNtulikazi wezi-2019 mayelana nokushicilelwa kombhalo ofanayo wokuphathwa kukaNgqongqoshe Wezokuvakasha, Ezokwakha kanye Nezomnotho Olwandle ngaphandle kokufakwa kwezinsiza ezithile zoMthetho - Umthetho Wezindiza ezinhlotsheni ezithile zezindiza nokucacisa imibandela nezimfuneko zokusetshenziswa kwale mikhumbi
  2. Ubuciko. 15zzzzl. Isenzo sika-Ephreli 16, 2020 kumathuluzi athile wokusekela maqondana nokusakazwa kwegciwane le-SARS-CoV-2

Imithethonqubo ihlala ishintsha futhi ilungiswa, ngakho-ke ngincoma ukuthi uyilandele kwiwebhusayithi ye-Internet Legal Machitidwe System https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/ kanye nokulandela amakhasi we-Civil Aviation Authority https://www.ulc.gov.pl/ kanye ne-State Air Navigation Services Agency https://www.pansa.pl/u-space/, lapho uzothola khona imininingwane eminingi ebalulekile ehlobene ne-drones.

drone nentombazane


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